The purpose of this presentation is to analyze a survey instrument validation process that I have engaged in so as to conduct a large-scale survey across nine countries and 36 institutions in the Global South concerning the scholarly activities of current and potential users of Open Education Resources (OER).
The development process of the instrument consisted of the following six steps: After obtaining ethical clearance at each institution, the LC has to follow the data collection plan with random collection.
The totality of the content of existing PRO instruments for a specific condition provides a valuable resource (pool of items) that can be utilised to develop new instruments.
Such 'top down' approaches are common, but the explicit pre-validation methods are often poorly reported.
In a review of 748 research studies conducted in agricultural and Extension education, Radhakrishna, Leite, and Baggett (2003) found that 64% used questionnaires.
They also found that a third of the studies reviewed did not report procedures for establishing validity (31%) or reliability (33%).
Most published North American studies base their measures of diversity on categories of race but, as Fuller (Fuller 2003) notes, lumping together into a group large numbers of individuals who share little in terms of phenotype, culture, and/or behaviour inhibits reaching appropriate solutions, with progress being made when the issue of health disparities is reframed as one of phenotype/environmental mismatch. 2004) quantified misclassification of birthplace data for Asian cancer patients in the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry in northern California by comparing registry birthplace information with self-reported birthplace from interview, and then identified sociodemographic and hospital characteristics associated with birthplace completeness and misclassification. Among US-born Asians, those misclassified as foreign-born were more likely than those correctly classified to prefer a non-English primary language.
The focus is on cross-cultural and conceptual, rather than on linguistic/literal equivalence.
A well-established method to achieve this goal is to use forward-translations and back-translations.
Questionnaires are the most frequently used data collection method in educational and evaluation research.
Questionnaires help gather information on knowledge, attitudes, opinions, behaviors, facts, and other information.